Marion Kotrba

Publications

By Dr. Marion Kotrba

Kotrba M, Schilling L-H in press. Measurement of pH in ethanol, distilled water and their mixtures: On the assessment of pH in ethanol-based natural history wet collections and the detrimental aspects of dilution with distilled water. – Collection Forum.

Kotrba M in press. Gems from the H. Fischer collection: Diptera watercolors by E. H. Compton and a syntype of Pegesimallus teratodes (Hermann, 1906) (Asilidae). – Fly times

Kotrba M, Weniger R 2018. New structure discovered in female reproductive tract of Syrphidae. – Fly times 60: 13.

Weniger R, Kotrba M. Über das innere weibliche Genital von Episyrphus balteatus (DeGeer, 1776) und eine neue ventrale Struktur innerhalb der Syrphidae. – DGaaE Nachrichten 32:44

Kotrba M, Weniger R 2017. Redescription of the internal female genitalia of Episyrphus balteatus (DeGeer) (Diptera), including a new and distinctive structure common to all Syrphidae. – Studia dipterologica 22: 171-186.

Kotrba M 2016: Look trough the eye of a fly. – Fly times 57: 11.

Kotrba M 2016: The female reproductive tract of Grallipeza sp. A (Diptera: Micropezidae) – Large ventral receptacle substitutes for spermathecae convergently in small and widely separated dipteran clades. – Organisms, Diversity and Evolution 2016: 525-532. Free download

Kotrba M, Heß M, Dallai R 2016 Giant spermatozoa of Diasemopsis (Diopsidae, Diptera) – structural, ultrastructural and functional aspects. – Arthropod Structure & Development 45: 42-56

Kotrba M 2015. Dr. Eberhard Plassmann (03. November 1938 – 12. Juni 2014) – Nachruf und Bibliografie. – Studia dipterologica 21: 45-51.

Kotrba M, Weber D 2015. Dr. Eberhard Plassmann (*03.November 1938; †12. Juni 2014) – Nachruf. – Mitteilungen des Verbandes der deutschen Höhlen- und Karstforscher e.V. 61: 29-30.

Kotrba M 2015. Statistische Analyse von Kongreßdaten belegt bedenkliche Trends in der Wissenschaftslandschaft – Ein Fallbeispiel anhand des 8th International Congress of Dipterology. – GfBS News 30:29-33.

Kotrba M 2015. Dr. Eberhard Plassmann (*03. November 1938, †12. Juni 2014) – Ein Nachruf. – Nachrichtenblatt Bayerischer Entomologen 64:63-65.

Kotrba M 2014. Meeting report for the 8th International Congress of Dipterology, 10-15 August, 2014, Potsdam, Germany. – Fly times 53:40-42.

Kotrba M 2014. ICD8 delegate statistics reveal trends in the availability of dipterological expertise. – Fly times 53:42-47.

Dorchin N, Kotrba M, Mengual X, Menzel F eds. 2014. 8th International Congress of Dipterology, Potsdam 2014, Abstract Volume. XXVII+440 pp.

Kotrba M (ed.) 2014: Flies and midges … Fliegen und Mücken. A family album … Ein Familienalbum. – Goecke & Evers, Keltern. 195 pp.

Kotrba M, Huber J, Feijen RH 2014. Coevolution of male and female genitalia in stalk-eyed flies (Diptera, Diopsidae). – Organisms Diversity & Evolution 14:187-201.

Kotrba M 2013. 8th International Congress of Dipterology, 10-15 August, 2014, Potsdam, Germany. – Fly times 50:31-32.

Kotrba M, Heß, M 2013. Giant spiral shaped spermatozoa of Diasemopsis comoroensis (Diptera, Diopsidae) with a unique ultrastructural component. – Tissue and Cell 45: 443-445.

Kotrba M, Dorchin D, Menzel F, Pape T 2013. 8th International Congress of Dipterology – 2nd Circular. – Studia dipterologica 20:90-96.

Queiroz DL, Burckhardt D, Kotrba M, dos Anjos N 2013. Primeiro registro da familia Tachinidae como parasitoide de Psilidea (Hemiptera: Psylloidea). – Poster. 13. – Simpósio de Controle Biológico (SICONBIOL), Centro de Convenções em Bonito, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, 15-18.9.2013.

Mathis WN, Rung A, Kotrba M 2012. A revision of the genus Planinasus Cresson (Diptera: Periscelididae). – ZooKeys 225:1-83

Kotrba M, Reckel F, Grunwald J, Balke M, Swoboda S 2012. Chrysomya albiceps– a forensically important blow fly new for Bavaria. – Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 102: 99-103.

Kotrba M 2011.The internal female reproductive tract of Sicus ferrugineus (Linnaeus, 1761) (Diptera: Conopidae). – Spixiana 34: 215-220.

Kotrba M, Spies M 2011. Obituary for Wolfgang Schacht (1939 – 2011). – Spixiana 34: 146.

Kotrba M 2011. Wolfgang Schacht (10. November 1939 – 10. April 2011). Ein Nachruf. – Nachrichtenblatt der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 60: 100-106.

Kotrba M 2011. Wolfgang Schacht (10. November 1939 – 10. April 2011). An obituary. – Studia dipterologica 17:3-11.

Kotrba M 2011. Wolfgang Schacht (10. November 1939 – 10. April 2011). Ein Nachruf. – Entomofauna, Zeitschrift für Entomologie 32: III-XII.

Kotrba M, Golbig K, 2011. Effect of container glass quality on pH in natural history wet collections. – Collection Forum 25: 135-139.

Kotrba M, Hess M 2011. XXL- Giant spermatozoa in Diasemopsis comoroensis. – BioSystematics Berlin 2011, Abstracts: 206.

Kotrba M, Huber J 2011. Coevolution of male and female genitalia in stalk eyed flies (Diopsidae: Diptera). – BioSystematics Berlin 2011, Abstracts: 207.

Burckhardt D, Luiz de Queiroz D, Castro de Queiroz E, Andrade D, Zanol K, Queiroz Resende M, Kotrba M 2011.The jumping plant-louse Mastigimas anjosi (Hemiptera, Psylloidea), a new pest of Toona ciliata (Meliaceae) in Brazil. – Spixiana 34: 109-120.

Kirk-Spriggs AH, Kotrba M, Copeland RS 2011. Further details of the morphology of the enigmatic African fly Mormotomyia hirsuta Austen (Diptera: Mormotomyiidae). – African Invertebrates 52: 145–165.

Kotrba M 2010. Massenauftreten der Gemeinen Rasenhalmfliege Thaumatomyia notata (Diptera, Chloropidae) an Gebäuden – ein zunehmendes Problem in unserer Zeit? – Denisia 30: 451-456.

Kotrba M, Carr M, Balke M 2010. The systematic position of Diopsina Curran, 1928 (Diptera, Diopsidae) inferred from DNA sequence data. – Insect Systematics and Evolution 41:295-302.

Kotrba M, Hess M 2010. XXXL- Giant spermatozoa in Diasemopsis comoroensis (Diopsidae). – 7th International Congress of Dipterology, San Jose, Costa Rica, Abstract volume: 134.

Kotrba M, Nartshuk E 2010. Massenauftreten der Gemeinen Rasenhalmfliege Thaumatomyia notata (Diptera, Chloropidae) an Gebäuden: Determination – Biologie – Verbreitung. – Studia dipterologica 15: 193-209.

Puniamoorthy N, Kotrba M, Meier R 2010. Unlocking the ‘Black box’: internal female genitalia in Sepsidae (Diptera) evolve fast and are species-specific. – BMC Evolutionary Biology 10:257. 12pp.

Puniamoorthy N, Kotrba M, Meier R 2010. Diverse females: Rapid evolution of the internal female genitalia in Sepsidae (Diptera). – 7th International Congress of Dipterology, San Jose, Costa Rica, Abstract volume: 195.

Kotrba M 2009. Prosphyracephala kerneggeri spec. nov. (Diptera: Diopsidae) – a new species of stalk eyed flies from Baltic amber. – Spixiana 32: 187-192.

Kotrba M 2009. Male flies with yellow balls – New observations on the eversible vesicles on the postabdomen of male Thaumatomyia notata (Diptera: Chloropidae). – European Journal of Entomology 106: 57-62 Link to PDF.

Kotrba M, Burckhardt D, Golbig K, Meier C 2009.Ranges and Changes of pH in Zoological Alcohol Collections. – Bridging continents, SPNHC 24th annual meeting,6-11 July 2009,Leiden, Abstract volume: 96. Abstract, Link…

Kotrba M, Golbig K 2009. A new approach to stabilize the pH in fluid-preserved natural history collections.  – Collection Forum 23: 18-22.

Kotrba M, Huber J 2009. Coevolution of male and female genitalia in stalk eyed flies (Diopsidae: Diptera). – DZG 102. Annual meeting Regensburg 25.-28.September 2009, Regensburg, Abstracts: 135 PDF…

Kotrba M, and Mathis WN 2009. The internal female reproductive tract of the enigmatic genus Risa (Diptera: Schizophora: Ephydroidea) and its phylogenetic implications. – Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 111: 627-640.

Burckhardt D, Kotrba M 2009. A review of the Afrotropical genus Moraniella with description of a new species (Hemiptera, Psylloidea, Rhinocolinae). – African Invertebrates 50: 287-294.

Burckhardt D, Kotrba M 2009. Zur Verleihung der J. O. Westwood-Medaille an Dr. Marianne Horak. – Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 81: 265.

Tröster M, Kotrba M 2009. Survey of the fungus gnats (Diptera: Mycetophilidae) of the Botanical Garden Munich with a new record for Bavaria. – DZG 102. Annual meeting Regensburg 25.-28.September 2009, Regensburg, Abstracts: 120. PDF…

Kotrba M 2008.Mass occurrences of Thaumatomyia notata (Diptera, Chloropidae) on buildings in Europe. – XXIII International Congress of Entomology, Durban, Abstract volume: 1196.

Kotrba M 2007. The internal female reproductive tract of Campichoeta Macquart, 1835 and Diastata Meigen, 1830 (Diptera, Schizophora). – Studia dipterologica 13(2): 193-404.

Kotrba M 2007. Massenauftreten der gemeinen Rasenhalmfliege Thaumatomyia notata an Gebäuden – ein zunehmendes Problem in unserer Zeit? – Berichte des naturwissenschaftlich-medizinischen Vereins in Innsbruck, Supplementum 17: 114. Abstract

Kotrba M, Ruthensteiner M, Vogelsgesang, F 2007. Die Zoologischen Staatssammlung – Ein Forschungsinstitut von internationaler Bedeutung. – Obermenzinger Bilder 50: 26-49. Link zur PDF

Kotrba M, Überle F 2007. Life history and morphology of the immature stages of Richardia teevani (Diptera, Richardiidae). – Studia dipterologica 14: 309-327.

Kotrba, M. 2006. Zweiflügler. In Brockhaus (ed.): Faszination Natur, Tiere. Bd. 2: 314-351. – Brockhaus, Leipzig, Mannheim.

Kotrba M, Balke M 2006. The systematic position of sexually dimorphic stalk-eyed flies of the genus Cladodiopsis Séguy, 1949 (Diptera: Diopsidae) inferred from DNA sequence data. – Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 38: 843-847. Link zur PDF

Kotrba M, Burckhardt D, Baehr M, Hausmann A, von Knorre D, Spelda J 2006. Die Einschätzung des Geldwertes von naturkundlichen Sammlungen und Belegen. – Museum Aktuell 127: 23-26.

Carr M, Cotton S, Földvári M, Kotrba M 2006. A description of a new species of Diasemopsis (Diptera, Diopsidae) from the Comoro Islands with morphological, molecular and allometric data. – Zootaxa 1211: 1-19. Link zur PDF

Kotrba M, Burckhardt D 2005. Cum grano salis – die neuen Hypothesen zur Insektenphylogenie. – Nachrichtenblatt der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 54 (3/4): 88-94. Link zur PDF

Rossi W, Kotrba M,Triebel D 2005. A new Stigmatomyces (Laboulbeniales, Ascomycota) on a stalk-eyed fly (Diopsidae, Diptera) from Bitterfeld amber. – Mycological Research 109: 271-274.

Kotrba M 2004. Fliegenschwärme im südbayerischen Seengebiet (Diptera: Chloropidae). – Nachrichtenblatt der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 53: 32.

Kotrba M 2004 Baltic amber fossils reveal early evolution of sexual dimorphism in stalk-eyed flies (Diptera, Diopsidae). – Organisms, Diversity and Evolution 4: 265-275. PDF, 633KB)

Kotrba M 2004. Fertilization chamber and ventral receptacle: diversity in form and function of a homologous structure in the female reproductive tract of higher flies. – XXII International Congress of Entomology, Brisbane, Abstracts: XX.

Glaubrecht M, Kotrba M 2004. Alfred Russel Wallace’s discovery of “curious horned flies” and the aftermath. – Archives of Natural History 31:275-299.

Rossi W, Kotrba M 2004. A new polymorphic species of Laboulbenia parasitic on a South American fly. – Mycological Research 108: 1315-1319. Abstract

Kotrba M 2003. Die „acht goldenen Regeln“ von James Rodman. – GfBS News 11(03): 22.

Kotrba M 2003. Partnerships for Enhancing Expertise in Taxonomy – das P.E.E.T.-Programm. – GfBS News 11(03): 32.

Kotrba M 2003. Biodiversität – Vielfalt des Lebens. Kurzfilm. IWF C14811. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4FrV6-dClpM

Kotrba M 2002. The female reproductive tract in Diptera I: An introduction. – 5th International Congress of Diperology, Brisbane, Abstract volume: 122.

Kotrba M 2002. The female reproductive tract in Diptera II: Morphological diversity and details of the female reproductive tract in acalyptrate Schizophora. – 5th International Congress of Diperology, Brisbane, Abstract volume: 123.

Kotrba M, Baptista A 2002. The internal female reproductive tract of Opomyzidae (Diptera, Schizophora). – Studia Dipterologica 9: 57-71. Abstract

Kotrba M 2001. Die Fliege im Weinglas – Plagegeister im Herbst“. – Blutenburger Kurier 5: 16.

Kotrba M 2000. 1.3. Morphology and terminology of the female postabdomen. In László Papp & Béla Darvas (eds): Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera (with special reference to flies of economic importance, Vol 1: 75 – 84. – Science Herald, Budapest.

Meier R, Kotrba M, Ferrar P 1999:. Ovoviviparity and viviparity in the Diptera. – Biological Reviews 74: 199-258. Abstract

Freidberg A, Mathis W, Kotrba M 1998. Systematics of the genus Risa Becker (Ephydridae). – 4 th International Congress of Diperology, Oxford, Abstract volume: 57.

Kotrba M 1997. Shoot or stab? Morphological evidence on the unresolved oviposition techique in Stylogaster Macquart (Diptera: Conopidae), including discussion of behavioral observations. – Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 99: 613-621. Abstract

Meier R, Kotrba M, Barber K 1997. On the natural history and morphology of the egg, first instar larva, puparium, and female reproductive system of Curtonotum helvum (Curtonotidae; Ephydroidea; Diptera). – American Museum Novitates 3219:1-20. Abstract; pdf

Kotrba M 1996. Sperm transfer by spermatophore in Diptera: New results from the Diopsidae. – Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 117: 305-323. Abstract Link zur PDF

Kotrba M 1996. Significance of characters of the internal female reproductive organs for the systematic position of Stylogaster (Diptera: Conopidae). – Verhandlungen der Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft, Kurzpublikationen 89: 16.

Kotrba M 1996.Phylogenetic analysis of characters of the female reproductive tract of acalyptrate Schizophora (Diptera). – XX International Congress of Entomology, Florenz, Abstract volume: XX.

Meier R, Kotrba M 1996. The phylogenetic distribution of vivipary in Diptera. – Verhandlungen der Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft, Kurzpublikationen 89: 17.

Kotrba M 1995. The internal female genital organs of Chaetodiopsis and Diasemopsis (Diptera: Diopsidae) and their systematic relevance. – Annals of the Natal Museum 36: 147-159. Abstract

Kotrba M 1994. Das ventrale Rezeptakulum der acalyptraten Schizophora (Diptera): von der Befruchtungskammer zum Spermaspeicher. – Verhandlungen der Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft, Kurzpublikationen 87: 97.

Kotrba M 1994. Sperm transfer by spermatophore in Diptera: new results from the Diopsidae (Schizophora). – 3rd International Congress of Diperology, Guelph Abstract volume: 113.

Kotrba M 1994. The ventral receptacle of the acalyptrate Schizophora: from fertilization chamber to sperm-storage organ. – 3rd International Congress of Diperology, Guelph Abstract volume: 114.

Kotrba M 1993. Das Reproduktionssystem von Cyrtodiopsis whitei Curran 1936 (Diopsidae, Diptera) unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der inneren weiblichen Geschlechtsorgane. – Bonner Zoologische Monographien 33: 115 pp. Abstract

Kotrba M 1993 The ventral receptacle of the acalyptrateSchizophora (Diptera). Vortrag. – Jahrestagung der Entomolgogical Society of America, Indianapolis.

Kotrba M 1992. Das Reproduktionssystem der Stielaugenfliege Cyrtodiopsis whitei (Diopsidae, Diptera). Vortrag. – Evolutionsbiologisches Kolloquium, Museum Alexander König, Bonn.

Kotrba M 1990. Sperm transfer by spermatophore in an acalyptrate fly (Diptera: Diopsidae). – Entomologia generalis 15(3): 181-183.

Kotrba M 1990.The spermatophore of Cyrtodiopsis whitei Curran (Diopsidae). – 2nd International Congress of Diperology, Bratislava,Abstract volume: 122.

Kotrba M 1988. Untersuchungen zur geschlechtlichen Zuchtwahl bei Cyrtodiopsis whitei Curran (Diopsidae, Diptera). – Mitteilungsblatt der Ethologischen Gesellschaft e. V. 21(6): 6.

Abstracts

KOTRBA, M. 1993. Das Reproduktionssystem von Cyrtodiopsis whitei Curran 1936 (Diopsidae, Diptera) unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der inneren weiblichen Geschlechtsorgane. Bonner Zoologische Monographien 33: 115 pp.

The male and female genital organs, eggs and spermatozoa of Cyrtodiopsis whitei were studied by light microscopy and electron microcopy, with special reference to the internal female genital organs. Internal proceedings during copulation and oviposition were reconstructed through observation of reproductive behavior and dissection of specimens killed and fixed in the respective behavioral context.

The internal female genital organs of C. whitei comprise paired, meroistic polytrophic ovaries, the lateral oviducts and common oviduct, a muscular vagina, three spermathecae suspended on two spermathecal ducts, paired accessory glands, and a multi-chambered ventral receptacle, previously unknown in Diopsidae. A sclerotized ring is embedded in the ventral vagina wall. The circular and longitudinal musculature of the vagina inserts on this ring in such fashion, that a specially differentiated epithelial cushion in its center remains spared from the muscular envelope. CoCl2-filling revealed a transversal nerve plexus in the dorsal vagina wall opposite of the sclerotized ring. This nerve plexus might constitute a strech receptor.

The investigation of C. whitei females fixed during and shortly after copulation resulted in the first demonstration of sperm transfer by spermatophore in an acalyptrate fly. The one-chambered, club-shaped spermatophore is formed by the male during the 45 second copulation in the anterior portion of the females vagina. Subsequently spermatozoa and accessory secretions are transferred into the females spermathecae. From there they are later moved to the ventral receptacle. Fertilization of the eggs occurs at the orifice of the ventral receptacle.

The results are compared with literature data and discussed regarding their implications for the reproductive biology of C. whitei. The function of the ventral receptacle and the spermatophore are deliberated, as well as potential reasons for the high copulation frequency and promiscuity of the females and various possibilities for sperm competition. Finally the prospecitve importance of characters of the internal female genital organs for future phylogenetic investigations is emphasized.

KOTRBA, M. 1995. The internal female genital organs of Chaetodiopsis and Diasemopsis (Diptera: Diopsidae). Annals of the Natal Museum 36: 147-159.

The morphology of the internal female reproductive organs of Chaetodiopsis meigenii and four Diasemopsis species, all based on material from Natal (South Africa), is described. Variation is evident, especially in the form and size of the ventral receptacle, the ventral sclerite, and the spermathecae. Phylogenetic analysis of these characters, in combination with results available from other diopsids, resolves generic but not species relationships. It confirms that this character system can be valuable for phylogenetic analysis, as suggested by previous authors.

The vast enlargement of the multi-chambered ventral receptacle in Chaetodiopsis and Diasemopsis has various implications on the possibilities of sperm competition and spermatozoa selection, that deserve further investigation. The ventral receptacle possibly acquires part of the sperm storage function from the spermathecae, that are concurrently reduced in number and size. Furthermore, the parallel arrangement of several hundred chambers, housing individual spermatozoa, provides an arena for spermatozoa competition. The elongation of the chambers, coninciding with the elongation of the spermatozoa, constitutes a new example for the coevolution of spermatozoa and female sperm receptacles.

KOTRBA, M. 1996. Sperm transfer by spermatophore in Diptera: New results from the Diopsidae. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 117: 305-323.

Sperm transfer by spermatophore is reported as a common and possibly primitive feature of the Diopsidae (Diptera, Schizophora). Spermatophores occur in four out of five investigated genera, in Cyrtodiopsis, Diasemopsis, Teleopsis, and in Sphyracephala, which is positioned close to the base of the family. Within the genus Diopsis the spermatophore is subject to reduction. Spermatophore size and copulation duration are positively correlated across the species. This is only partially explained by the time requirement of sperm transfer. Parsimony in time and material seems to be favoured in species with high mating frequency at special aggregation sites, whereas high investment in time and material occur in species that do not mate preferentially at certain times or locations. The utilization of spermatophores has strong implications on the possibilities of sperm competition and cryptic female choice and may account for the occurrence of a postcopulatory passive phase or prolonged mating in some species. The increasing number of records of spermatophores in Diptera is reviewed.

KOTRBA, M. 1997. Shoot or stab? Morphological evidence on the unresolved oviposition techique in Stylogaster Macquart (Diptera: Conopidae), including discussion of behavioral observations. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 99: 613-621.

Behavioral observations on the oviposition behavior of Stylogaster are reviewed in combination with data on the egg morphology, egg placement, and the female postabdomen. The internal female reproductive tract of S. stylosa Townsend is described. While some behavioral observations seem to imply a shooting oviposition technique, the morphological evidence favors stabbing oviposition.

MEIER, R., KOTRBA, M., BARBER, K. 1997. On the natural history and morphology of the egg, first instar larva, puparium, and female reproductive system of Curtonotum helvum (Curtonotidae; Ephydroidea; Diptera). American Museum Novitates 3219:1-20.

Curtonotum helvum (Loew) (Curtonotidae, Diptera), the only Nearctic representative of the Curtonotidae, was reared in the laboratory from a decaying grasshopper egg pod. Curtonotum helvum can be collected from mid-June to September throughout its wide Nearctic range. In a study of a population on the southern coast of Lake Huron the species was found to be crepuscular and possibly even nocturnal. Copulations were only observed at dusk. In captivity the flies readily consumed coyote dung, sand cherries, and insect carcasses, but failed to oviposit on any of these substrates. The female reproductive system is characterized by two sclerotized, scimitar-shaped spermathecae and an anteroventral pouch arising from the vagina. The ventral receptacle is short and tubular with a sclerotized tip. The anteroventral pouch is also present in the remaining two genera of the family (Axinota Wulp, Cyrtona Séguy) and likely constitutes a new synapomorphy of the Curtonotidae, whereas the two spermathecae are a groundplan feature of the Ephydroidea. First descriptions of curtonitid eggs are provided. The eggs of Curtonotum helvum and those of Axinota uniformis (Malloch) bear longitudinal ridges, have a cup-shaped micropyle, and aeropyles at the anterior pole. They are strikingly similar to the eggs of ephydrids and dissimilar to drosophilid eggs. The larva of Curtonotum helvum is more similar to the larvae of Drosophilidae than to those of Ephydridae. The puparium of Curtonotum helvum has all anal tubercles that also belong to the groundplan of the drosophilid puparium. At present, not enough comparable information is available from the other families of Ephydroidea for a satisfactory phylogenitic evaluation of this character information.

MEIER, R., KOTRBA, M., FERRAR, P. 1999: Ovoviviparity and viviparity in the Diptera. Biological Reviews 74: 199-258.

The taxonomic distribution and evolution of viviparity in Diptera is critically reviewed. The phenomenon ranges from ovoviviparity (eggs deposited at an advanced stage of embryonic development; larva emerges immediately after deposition), through viviparity (larva hatches inside female before oviposition) to pupiparity (offspring deposited as pupa). Some Diptera are known to be facultatively viviparous, which is hypothesized to be a step towards the evolution of obligate viviparity. Obligate viviparity is found to comprise unilarviparity (single large larva in maternal uterus) which evolved many times independently, the rare oligolarviparity (more than one but not more than 12 larvae) and multilarviparity (large numbers of developing eggs or larvae in uterus) which ist typical for the two largest clades of viviparous Diptera. Unilarviparity is either lecithotrophic (developing larva nourished by yolk of egg) or pseudo-placental (larva nourished by glandular secretions of mother). Viviparity has clearly evolved on many separate occasions in Diptera. It is recorded in 22 families, and this review identifies at least 61 independent origins of viviparity. Six families appear to have viviparity in their ground-plan. Some families have a single evolution of viviparity, others multiple evolutions. Guimaraes’ model for the evolution of viviparity in Diptera is tested against phylogenetic information and the adaptive significance of viviparity is reviewed in detail. Possible correlations with life-history parameters (coprophily, parasitism, breeding in ephemeral plant parts, malacophagy and adult feeding habits – especially haematophagy ) are analysed critically, as are potential advantages (shorter larval life, less investment in yolk by mother, protection of vulnerable stages, better access to breeding substrates, predation on competitors). Morphological constraints, adaptations and exaptations are reviewed, including the provision of an incubation space for the egg(s), the positioning of the egg(s) in the uterus, and maternal glands. The main morphological adaptations include greater egg size, reduction of egg respiratory filaments, thinning of chorion, modified larval respiratory system and mouthparts, and instar skipping. Female morphology and behaviour is particularly strongly modified for viviparity. The terminalia are shortened, the vagina is more muscular and tracheated, and the ovaries of unilarviparous species have a reduced number of ovarioles with alternate ovulation. Many of the final conclusions are tentative, and a plea is made for more detailed morphological and experimental study of many of the viviparous species. Viviparity in Diptera provides a fascinating example of multiple parallel evolution, and a fertile field for future research.

M. KOTRBA and A. BAPTISTA, in print: The internal female reproductive tract of Opomyzidae (Diptera, Schizophora). Studia Dipterologica 2002.

The internal female reproductive tract of 6 species of Opomyzidae is described, representing 3 of the 4 known genera of the family. Only minor differences were found between the studied species. The general pattern comprises a tubular membranous vagina, two ovoid to elongate sclerotized spermathecae, long accessory glands with narrow gland reservoirs and an apical tubular extension, and an unsclerotized ventral receptacle with two to many ovoid chambers opening into its anterodorsal portion. The number and the diameter of these chambers show a negative correlation across the species, with the effect that their overall volume stays more or less the same. Our investigation of the internal female reproductive tract did not reveal any putative synapomorphies supporting a sister-group relationship between Opomyzidae and Anthomyzidae.

Rossi, W. and Kotrba, M. 2004: A new polymorphic species of Laboulbenia parasitic on a South American fly. – Mycological Research 108: 1315-1319.

Morphologically different thalli of Laboulbenia richardiana sp. nov. (Laboulbeniales, Ascomycota) were found on various parts of the body of the South American fly Richardia teevani. These thalli lack a separate cell IV and have similar appendages and perithecial apices. They are interpreted here as ‘growth forms’ of a single biological species. Spore characteristics and insect behavior support this view, rather than the hypothesis of several different species displaying position specificity.

Massenauftreten der gemeinen Rasenhalmfliege Thaumatomyia notata an Gebäuden – ein zunehmendes Problem in unserer Zeit?

Jahr für Jahr im Herbst suchen oft viele Millionen Individuen umfassende Schwärme der gemeinen Rasenhalmfliege Thaumatomyia notata (Diptera: Chloropidae) bestimmte Gebäude heim und dringen in sie ein um zu überwintern. Daß die Belastung für die Bewohner betroffener Gebäude unzumutbar werden kann, ist leicht vorstellbar. Umsomehr, als oft die selben Gebäude über viele Jahre hinweg regelmäßig befallen werden. Eine wirksame Bekämpfung der unerträglichen Fliegenschwärme ist bis heute nicht gefunden. Abgesehen von der Minderung der Wohn- und Lebensqualität entsteht kein ernsthaftes Gesundheitsrisiko, es handelt sich also nur um “Lästlinge” und nicht um “Schädlinge”.

Prinzipiell sind derartige Massenauftreten von Thaumatomyia notata seit Jahrhunderten bekannt und beschrieben. Das Jahr 2003 hatte allerdings – auch nach Auskunft der Schädlingsbekämpfungsfirmen – alles bisher bekannte in den Schatten gestellt. Seitdem sind die Massenauftreten zwar zahlenmäßig wieder zurückgegangen, im Jahr 2006 wurden aber erneut 26 Fälle aus Deutschland, 16 davon allein aus Südbayern gemeldet. Die Dunkelziffer liegt mit Sicherheit um ein Vielfaches höher. Darüber, welche Mechanismen bei der Auswahl der betroffenen Gebäude eine Rolle spielen, gibt es bisher nur vage Vermutungen, und auch der Lebenszyklus und die restliche Biologie der Art sind kaum erforscht. Dafür wächst das vorwiegend populärwissenschaftliche Informationsangebot, vor allem im Internet, das tatsächliche Gegebenheiten mit ungesicherten oder sogar falschen Fakten vermengt.

Der Vortrag gibt einen Überblick über die geografische Verbreitung und zeitliche Entwicklung der Massenauftreten in den letzten Jahren und fasst die bisherigen Erkenntnisse über die Biologie der Art zusammen.